An argument is a chunk of reasoning used to prove a point.

Argument Basics

Claim: A statement you want to prove.

Warrant: The reason why a claim is true.

Impact: The reason why your argument matters.


Claim: Dogs are gross.

Warrant: They drink from the toilet bowl.

Impact: Dogs lick your face and toilet water has harmful bacteria.

Arguments in Cases

Contention: A claim used to support your side of the resolution.

Card: A block of evidence from a source with a citation used to prove a contention.

Analysis: A chunk of writing that explains why the judge should care.


Contention: You should eat more blueberries.


Blueberries Card

Analysis: This evidence proves that eating more blueberries will help you live a longer and healthier life.

Cause-and-Effect Arguments

Claim: Your statement that supports your side of the resolution.

Link: How the resolution changes the world or causes an outcome.

Impact: Why the change or outcome is good or bad.


Resolution: You should do debate.

Claim (Negative): Doing debate will harm your ability to have a romantic relationship.

Link: Doing debate will absorb hours and hours of your time.

Impact: Focusing so much time on debate will push anyone interested in you away for good.